Learning Objectives for Test 4

Chapter 8, Lipids and Membranes

8.1  Lipids

Sketch a triacylglyceride, given its name.  7, 9, 11, 13

Recognize omega-3 fatty acids.

Know that diglycerides often have a charged group in the third position.

Sketch the structure of cholesterol.

8.2  The Lipid Bilayer

Given a lipid, predict what type of lipid assembly it will form.  15, 17

Relate bilayer fluidity to composition.  19, 21, 23, 25

Explain how membrane asymmetry is preserved in terms of transverse diffusion.  31

8.3  Membrane Proteins

Describe three ways in which proteins associate with membranes.  33, 35

Describe the two forms of polypeptide segments that are commonly found traversing a membrane.  39

Describe lipid-linked proteins in general terms. 

8.4  The Fluid Mosaic Model

Describe one of the refinements made to the original fluid mosaic model.  43

Chapter 12, Overview of Metabolism and Free Energy

12.2  Metabolic Pathways

Given the structure of NAD+ or NADP+, show the structure of the NADH or NADPH redox cofactor.

Chapter 13, Glucose Metabolism

13.1  Glycolysis

SKIP THIS ONE.  Know that synthesis of 6-phosphoglucose from glycogen does not require ATP.

Sketch the glycolysis pathway, including structures and the names of the first five enzymes.  15

Given the free energy changes for each step in a metabolic pathway, identify the control points in that pathway.  2, 3

State how phosphorylation of glucose affects its mobility.  5

Describe how glycolysis is hormonally regulated in mammals.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Explain how a transition state analog helped elucidate the mechanism of triose phosphate isomerase.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Know where NADH gets an H from in step 6.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Know that the intermediate in step 8 has both OHs phosphorylated.

SKIP THIS ONE.  State whether the Mg2+ in step 9 is a coenzyme or cofactor.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Explain how the two parts of step 10 drive the reaction.

Explain how catabolism of glucose can continue anaerobically.

Relate ethanol metabolism to NAD+.

13.2  Gluconeogenesis

State which steps in gluconeogenesis use different enzymes than are used in glycolysis.  25

Describe the role of biotin in converting pyruvate to oxaloacetate.

State what the energy source is for the conversion of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate.

Relate regulation of gluconeogenesis to regulation of glycolysis.

13.3  Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation

(Skipped this section)

SKIP THIS ONE.  Know the energy source for glycogen synthesis.  31

13.4  The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

(Skipped this section)

Chapter 15, Oxidative Phosphorylation

15.1  The Thermodynamics of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

(Skipped this section)

15.2  Mitochondrial Electron Transport

SKIP THIS ONE.  Describe evidence that mitochondria originated as a free-living organism.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Describe how NADH is transported in and out of the matrix.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Sketch the electron transport chain of complexes I, II, III, and IV, showing how a proton gradient is formed.

SKIP THIS ONE.  Know what a cytochrome is.

15.3  Chemiosmosis

Explain how a proton gradient provides the free energy needed to form ATP.

15.4  ATP Synthase

Explain how an uncoupler can generate heat.