Learning Objectives For Test 1

Chapter 1

End of chapter exercises:  1, 2, 5, 8 (energy of an atom with 1 electron), 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 29

1.1 The nucleosynthesis of light elements

Know what a nucleon is.

Describe the origin of H and He in terms of the big bang, electromagnetic force, and the strong force.

What is the most abundant element in the universe? 

What is the second most abundant element?

Use the “nucleon number” to describe isotopes and nuclides.

Given a fundamental particle, state what its properties are, and vice versa.

SKIP:  Use “nuclear math” to complete a nuclear reaction.

Given the conversion factor, convert between eV and kJ/mol.

Calculate the nuclear binding energy per nucleon of a nuclide.

Calculate nuclear binding energy using the equivalence of mass and energy:  E = mc2.

Predict whether a nuclide will undergo fusion or fission.

Given nuclear binding energies per nucleon, calculate the energy change for a fusion or fission reaction.

Given a plot of nuclear binding energies, explain trends in elemental abundances in the sun.

Know that carbon catalyzes conversion of H to He.

Given the reaction,

,

explain how carbon dating works.

1.2  The nucleosynthesis of heavy elements (no objectives)

1.3  Spectroscopic information (no objectives)

1.4  Some principles of quantum mechanics

Understand the properties of ψ.

1.5  Atomic orbitals

Describe what the four quantum numbers represent.

Know what contributes to an electron’s total angular momentum.

Given radial distribution plots for s and p orbitals, identify which plot goes with which orbital.

Sketch and label the d orbitals

State how many nodes an orbital contains in its radial and angular components.

1.6  Penetration and shielding

Use shielding and penetration to account for changes in effective nuclear charge.

Use shielding and penetration to account for the order of orbital energies.

1.7  The building-up principle

Account for the electron configurations of atoms with half–filled orbitals

Give the electron configurations of charged species.

1.8  The classification of the elements

Know the terms metalloids, congeners, lanthanoids, actinoids, and chalcogens.

1.9  Atomic parameters        

Know what atomic radii are.

Account for trends in atomic radii, and for the lanthanoid contraction.

Account for trends in ionic radii: 

      Variation with coordination number

      Sizes of isoelectronic species

      Ionic radii compared to atomic (neutral) radii

      Trend down the periodic table

Give a chemical reaction illustrating a second ionization energy.

Account for trends in 1st & 2nd ionization energies.

Account for deviations in the trends of ionization energies.

Know the sign of the second Ea, and the chemical reaction to which it applies.

Account for deviations in the trends of Ea.

Know what is meant by frontier orbitals.

Show ionization and electron gain on an energy diagram.

State how Mulliken electronegativity, χM is defined.

Relate polarizability & electronegativity to frontier orbitals.

SKIP:  Predict polarizability, α, using Fajan’s rules.

Chapter 2

End of chapter exercises:  1-7, 9, 12-16, 19, 23

2.1  The octet rule

Sketch Lewis dot structures for species requiring more than an octet of electrons.

2.2  Resonance

Sketch the structures making up a resonance structure.

2.3  The VSEPR model

Predict the shape of a molecule using VSEPR theory.

Predict how the shape of a molecule with lone pairs deviates from the expected VSEPR shape.

2.4  The hydrogen molecule

2.5  Homonuclear diatomic molecules

2.6  Polyatomic molecules

Use promotion and hybridization to determine the shapes of molecules.

2.7  An introduction to the theory

Relate the number of molecular orbitals in a molecule to the number of atomic orbitals used to construct them.

Determine the bond order of a diatomic molecule from its MO diagram.

2.8  Homonuclear diatomic molecules

Sketch and label the shapes of the molecular orbitals in an MO diagram of a diatomic molecule.

State the three things that determine the amount of mixing in molecular orbitals.

Sketch the molecular orbital diagram of a diatomic molecule, including labels (e.g., σg, etc.)

Interpret a UV photoelectron spectrum in terms of a molecular orbital diagram.

2.9  Heteronuclear diatomic molecules

Describe how electron density is distributed among bonding and antibonding orbitals formed from atoms of different electronegativities.

2.10  Bond Properties

Know bond correlations.

2.11  Polyatomic molecules

Recognize ligand group orbitals.

2.12  Molecular shape in terms of molecular orbitals

(SKIP this one:)  Use a Walsh diagram to predict the shape of a molecule.

2.13  Bond length

SKIP:  Use a table of bond radii to predict the length of a bond.

2.14  Bond strength

SKIP:  Use a table of bond enthalpies to predict the enthalpy change, DH°, of a reaction. 

2.15  Electronegativity and bond enthalpy

Use a Ketelaar triangle to predict the type of bonding in a binary compound.

2.16  Oxidation states

SKIP:  Determine the oxidation state of an atom in a compound.  SKIP