Describe a given monosaccharide using the terms that describe whether it is a ketose or aldose, and how many carbons it contains. 1
Sketch Fischer projections of glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Recognize a reducing sugar.
Describe how anomers interconvert using Haworth projections. 5, 9, 13
Recognize d and l sugars from Fischer diagrams. Also, recognize epimers. 3, 7
Know which sugar (and which anomer of that sugar) can have all of its substituents in equatorial positions.
Recognize glycosidic bonds and glycosides.
Recognize modifications of sugars:
• addition of functional groups (e.g., phosphates and amines).
• oxidation of sugars (uronic acids)
• reduction of sugars (alcohols, deoxy sugars)
Label ring structures of sugars as pyranose or furanose.
Sketch Haworth projections of lactose, sucrose, cellulose, and starch. Determine which are reducing sugars. 19, 21, 23
Suggest a benefit for the cell in amylose having a helical structure.
Describe the branching in amylopectin and glycogen and know which one is more highly branched.
Explain why most animals cannot digest cellulose.