Describe a given monosaccharide using the terms that describe whether it is a ketose or aldose, and how many carbons it contains. 1
Sketch Fischer projections of glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Recognize a reducing sugar.
Describe how anomers interconvert using Haworth projections. 5, 9, 13
Recognize d and l sugars from Fischer diagrams. Also, recognize epimers. 3, 7
Know which sugar (and which anomer of that sugar) can have all of its substituents in equatorial positions.
Recognize glycosidic bonds and glycosides.
Recognize modifications of sugars:
• addition of functional groups (e.g., phosphates and amines).
• oxidation of sugars (uronic acids)
• reduction of sugars (alcohols, deoxy sugars)
Label ring structures of sugars as pyranose or furanose.
Sketch Haworth projections of lactose, sucrose, cellulose, and starch. Determine which are reducing sugars. 19, 21, 23
Suggest a benefit for the cell in amylose having a helical structure.
Describe the branching in amylopectin and glycogen and know which one is more highly branched.
Explain why most animals cannot digest cellulose.
Classify nitrogenous bases according to ring system.
Name the nucleosides. 5
Name nucleotides. 7, 11
Given a sequence of base pairs, sketch one strand of the nucleic acid (DNA or RNA).
State what determines which bases pair. 9
Recognize the minor and major grooves in DNA.
State the three main differences between DNA and RNA.
Relate Tm to stacking interactions in DNA. 13, 15, 17
Describe renaturing of DNA.
Describe the flow of genetic information. 23, 27
Given a sequence of bases and the genetic code, list the sequence of amino acids that the codons code for. 25
Given a sequence of nucleotides and a table of where restriction enzymes cleave,
1) predict which restriction enzymes would produce sticky ends, and
2) sketch the double-stranded cut pattern. 33, 37
Describe the formation of a recombinant DNA molecule.
Sketch a triacylglyceride, given its name. 7, 9, 11, 13
Recognize omega-3 fatty acids.
Know that diglycerides often have a charged group in the third position.
Sketch the structure of cholesterol.
Given a lipid, predict what type of lipid assembly it will form. 15, 17
Relate bilayer fluidity to composition. 19, 21, 23, 25
Explain how membrane asymmetry is preserved in terms of transverse diffusion. 31
Describe three ways in which proteins associate with membranes. 33, 35
Describe the two forms of polypeptide segments that are commonly found traversing a membrane. 39
Describe lipid-linked proteins in general terms.
Describe one of the refinements made to the original fluid mosaic model. 43
Recognize active and passive transporters. 9, 13, 15, 17
Know that porins are passive transporters of fairly small molecules.
Explain how potassium ion channels exclude sodium.
Describe the conformational change method of transport.
Recognize a given membrane transport system as uniport, symport, or antiport.
(This section just illustrates the previous objectives.) 23